Adjectives and Adverbs

Two other important word classes are adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives describe nouns, and can be used as modifiers (e.g., large in the large pizza), or as predicates (e.g., the pizza is large). English adjectives can have internal structure (e.g., fall+ing in the falling stocks). Adverbs modify verbs to specify the time, manner, place, or direction of the event described by the verb (e.g., quickly in the stocks fell quickly). Adverbs may also modify adjectives (e.g., really in Mary's teacher was really nice).

English has several categories of closed class words in addition to prepositions, such as articles (also often called determiners) (e.g., the, a), modals (e.g., should, may), and personal pronouns (e.g., she, they). Each dictionary and grammar classifies these words differently.

Your Turn: If you are uncertain about some of these parts-of-speech, study them using nltk.app.concordance(), or watch some of the School-house Rock! grammar videos available at YouTube, or consult Section 5.9.

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