There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context. Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the term concordance, and then placing "monstrous" in parentheses:
>>> text1.concordance("monstrous") Building index... Displaying 11 of 11 matches:
ong the former , one was of a most monstrous size . ... This came towards us ,
ON OF THE PSALMS . " Touching that monstrous bulk of the whale or ork we have r ll over with a heathenish array of monstrous clubs and spears . Some were thick d as you gazed , and wondered what monstrous cannibal and savage could ever hav that has survived the flood ; most monstrous and most mountainous ! That Himmal they might scout at Moby Dick as a monstrous fable , or still worse and more de th of Radney .'" CHAPTER 55 Of the monstrous Pictures of Whales . I shall ere l ing Scenes . In connexion with the monstrous pictures of whales , I am strongly ere to enter upon those still more monstrous stories of them which are to be fo ght have been rummaged out of this monstrous cabinet there is no telling . But of Whale - Bones ; for Whales of a monstrous size are oftentimes cast up dead u >>>
* > Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow, or Alt-p to access the previous $ command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection, using text2.concord ance("affection"). Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using: text3.concordance("lived"). You could look at text4, the Inaugural Address Corpus, to see examples of English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation, terror, god to see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5, the NPS Chat Corpus: search this for unconventional words like im, ur, lol. (Note that this corpus is uncensored!)
Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English.
A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the__pictures and the__size. What other words appear in a similar range of contexts? We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses:
>>> text1.similar("monstrous") Building word-context index...
subtly impalpable pitiable curious imperial perilous trustworthy abundant untoward singular lamentable few maddens horrible loving lazy mystifying christian exasperate puzzled >>> text2.similar("monstrous") Building word-context index...
very exceedingly so heartily a great good amazingly as sweet remarkably extremely vast >>>
Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very.
The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very. We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma:
>>> text2.common_contexts(["monstrous", "very"])
be_glad am_glad a_pretty is_pretty a_lucky >>>
Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions.
It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in the same context. However, we can also determine the location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot. Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. In Figure 1-2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end). You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty, constitution) and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets, and parentheses exactly right.
>>> text4.dispersion_plot(["citizens", "democracy", "freedom", "duties", "America"])
Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in this book. Please see http://www.nltk.org/ for installation instructions.
Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate. (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.)
In the beginning of his brother is a hairy man , whose top may reach unto heaven ; and ye shall sow the land of Egypt there was no bread in all that he was taken out of the month , upon the earth . So shall thy wages be ? And they made their father ; and Isaac was old , and kissed him : and Laban with his cattle in the midst of the hands of Esau thy first born , and Phichol the chief butler unto his son Isaac , she >>>
Note that the first time you run this command, it is slow because it gathers statistics about word sequences. Each time you run it, you will get different output text. Now try generating random text in the style of an inaugural address or an Internet chat room. Although the text is random, it reuses common words and phrases from the source text and gives us a sense of its style and content. (What is lacking in this randomly generated text?)
When generate produces its output, punctuation is split off from the preceding word. While this is not correct formatting for English text, we do it to make clear that words and punctuation are independent of one another. You will learn more about this in Chapter 3.
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