From the start of Section 1.1, you have had access to texts called textl, text2, and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sentl, as follows:

>>> sentl = ['Call', 'me', 'Ishmael', '.'] >>>

Such lines have the form: variable = expression. Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment. It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent, sentence, xyzzy. It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and underscores. Here are some examples of variables and assignments:

>>> my_sent = ['Bravely', 'bold', 'Sir', 'Robin', ',', 'rode',

Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists.

Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Python uses the ... prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read.

It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you—and to help anyone else who reads your Python code—what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3. The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def, if, not, and import. If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error:

>>> not = 'Camelot' File "<stdin>", line 1 not = 'Camelot'

SyntaxError: invalid syntax >>>

We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

>>> vocab = set(text1) >>> vocab_size = len(vocab) >>> vocab_size


Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits (0 to 9) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var. Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign.

Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings. For example, we can assign a string to a variable O, index a string ©, and slice a string ©.

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