In this chapter, we went into the gritty details of raising, handling, defining, and manipulating exceptions. Exceptions are a powerful way to communicate unusual circumstances or error conditions without requiring a calling function to explicitly check return values. Specifically, we covered:

• Built-in exceptions and raising exceptions

• Several ways to handle specific exceptions

• Defining new exceptions

• Using exceptions for unexceptional circumstances

In the next chapter, everything we've studied so far will come together as we discuss how object-oriented programming principles and structures should best be applied in Python applications.

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