Individual modules and packages

You can import individual modules and packages in a couple of ways, depending on how they will be used in your program.

Importing by full name

If you'll be using many parts of a complex package, use the following format to import an individual item by its full name:

import graphics.effects.invert

This type of package import statement has a couple of rules:

• Each name except for the last must be a package.

• The last name must be a module or a package; it can't be a class, function, or named object (attribute).

TECHNICAL To call a function from a module imported by its full name, type the STUFF full name of the module and then the function name, like this:

graphics.filters.noise.edges(args)

Import by using from

If you'll be using only a few parts of a package, use the following format to import an individual item by its full name:

from graphics.filters.noise import edges

Tip This format works for importing any of the following objects defined in the package: submodule, subpackage, function, class, and named object.

Here are a couple of examples of importing an individual item:

• The following example imports the noise module:

• from graphics.filters import noise

If you import noise this way, you use this code to call its function:

noise.edges(args)

• The following example imports the edges() function:

• from graphics.filters.noise import edges

If you import edges() this way, you use this code to call it:

edges(args)

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